Ph.D. in Cyber Security

By Brandon Mario D`Souza

Updated March 16, 2024

Brandon Mario D’Souza

Brandon is a registered social worker with Social Work England. He obtained his master’s in social work (personnel management & industrial relations) and used it in fields such as water treatment, construction, software, and education. Then he transitioned to the health and social care sector with an M.Sc. in health psychology. Brandon loves to write, cook, and play musical instruments (piano, guitar, melodica, ukulele, and kazoo) and enjoys the calmness and serenity of nature.


Master of Social Work, Master of Health Psychology

Areas of Expertise & Credentials

None to disclose in particular; the basics are covered in the short bio.

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The number of new options available to students interested in obtaining a Ph.D. in cybersecurity indicates the industry’s growth and expansion. As the range of skillsets for cybersecurity professionals evolves and expands, so do the many types of Ph.D. programs. Beyond computer science, cybersecurity experts are now receiving training in law, politics, management, and strategy, among other subjects, because almost all sectors today use technological infrastructure for routine tasks. Therefore, the online Ph.D. in cyber security can lead to senior, responsible, and high-paying roles in various settings and offer excellent career prospects. For example, the employment of information security analysts is expected to expand by 33%, substantially faster than the average for all occupations. Read on to find out more about this doctoral program and what it entails.

Ph.D. in Cyber Security

Best Ph.D. in Cyber Security

Almost every student aspires to further their studies at a prestigious university. But finding the best colleges for an online Ph.D. cyber security program can be difficult because several factors must be taken into account when ranking them. These factors include the reputation and infrastructure of the school, the curriculum, accreditation, research facilities, availability of thesis mentors, affordability, and so on. Using a proprietary formula and methodology, FBD teams identified some of the best schools offering PhD in cyber security degree programs. The following is the ranking list: *

Capitol Technology University (formerly Capitol College), founded in 1927 as the Capitol Radio Engineering Institute, is a private university in South Laurel, Maryland near Washington, DC. Capitol University provides undergraduate and graduate programs in engineering, computer science, information technology, and business. It is one of the “Special Focus Institutions—Schools of Engineering.”
Univ Address Tuition Grad Rate
Capitol Technology University 11301 Springfield Rd, Laurel, Maryland 20708 $11,340 51%

Universities and programs are ranked by various factors, such as affordability, curriculum and coursework, reputation and availability, program length, statistics, the potential of employment, and return on investment for the students. For a more in-depth analysis, please read about our rankings methodology page

What to Expect from Ph.D. in Cyber
Security Programs

Ph.D. in cybersecurity programs prepare students for high-level positions defending networks and computer systems from attacks. This doctoral study concentrates on advanced topics in research methodology, information assurance, leadership, and professional ethics. While every program is different, doctoral candidates typically complete their Ph.D. in cybersecurity in 3.5 to 7 years, taking an average of 60 credits.

Many universities in the U.S. offer cybersecurity Ph.D. programs, but some also provide DSc or doctor of science or doctor of professional studies (DPS) degrees as options. Online, on-campus, and hybrid cybersecurity doctorates are available to students, depending on how they want to pursue their studies. Students will take courses in research methodology, electives, and dissertation writing. Some of the core courses they can expect in the program include but are not limited to:

  • Professional Research Theory and Practice
  • Managing Cybersecurity Risk
  • Introduction to Software Security
  • Advanced Computer Security
  • Law, Policy, Ethics, and Compliance
  • Network Security
  • Hardware System Security
  • Software Vulnerabilities and Security

In addition, students are required to pick electives from various tracks, such as:

Hardware Security: Compilers, Computer Architecture, Computer Hardware Security, etc.

Machine Learning: Deep Learning, Machine Learning in Cybersecurity and Privacy, Advanced Machine Learning, etc.

Network Security: Wireless Networks, Foundations of Distributed Systems, Mobile and Wireless Networking, etc.

Systems Security: Intensive Computer Systems, Computer System Security, Computer Architecture, etc.

Theory: Advanced Algorithms, Complexity Theory, Information Theory, etc.

Security & Privacy: Visualization for Network Science, Qualitative Methods, Statistical Analysis, etc.

Cybersecurity Policy: Evidence-Based Crime Policy, Security and Resilience Policy, Cyberconflict, etc.

Other critical components of the Ph.D. in cyber security program are (varies by institution):


In many instances, Ph.D. students must fulfill a teaching requirement. This criterion is met when the student works as a teaching assistant (TA) or instructor of record (IoR) for at least one semester.


Some schools require one year of continuous full-time study. During this time, the student is expected to make significant progress preparing for the comprehensive examination.

Comprehensive Exam

After completing the required curriculum, students can take a comprehensive exam. Most students opt to compose a manuscript on a topic of their choosing and defend it orally in front of a committee of departmental, school, and/or university teachers.

Dissertation & Defense

A Ph.D. student must write and present a written dissertation proposal to the dissertation committee. The research challenge, study plan, and possible impact on the field should all be identified in the proposal. The proposal will be presented in an open forum, and the student must successfully defend it before the dissertation committee following the public presentation. Examples of cybersecurity research subjects that could be made into dissertation topics include:

  • Operation Security (OpSec) Strategy and Policy
  • Internet Advertising Targeting and Privacy
  • Cybersecurity Forensics and Enforcement
  • Network Infrastructure and Defense
  • Policies and Best Practices Around Passwords
  • Policies Around Encryption and Privacy
  • Ways to Defend Against the Rise of Bots
  • Corporate Responsibility for Employee Security
  • Cybersecurity Law and Policy
  • The Role of Ethical Hacking
  • The Vulnerabilities of Biometrics
  • The New Frontier of Social Engineering Attacks

Read the Guide to Ph.D. Programs to understand more about doctoral programs.

Areas of Specialization in Ph.D. in Cyber
Security Programs

Specializations are an excellent way to study a niche topic within the subject domain. Some PhD in cyber security programs include concentrations that allow students to focus on a specific area of the field related to their career goals or personal interests. Here are some examples of online PhD in cyber security specializations:

Area of Specialization Description Career Options
MSCS Incident Management & Business ContinuityThis concentration focuses on handling and responding to various security incidents, identifying vulnerabilities, and implementing appropriate countermeasures to reduce the risk of information failure.Cyber security incident handler, cyber incident responder
MSCS Cloud Security ArchitectThis concentration focuses on designing, planning, analyzing, configuring, testing, implementing, maintaining, and supporting the cloud security infrastructure of an organization.Cloud security architect
MSCS Data Analytics FundamentalsThis concentration introduces students to the importance of data analysis within an organization. They will gain experience by solving real-world problems utilizing crucial data technologies, methodologies, and tools to produce actionable outcomes.Data analyst, data security specialist
MSCS Security AnalystThis concentration focuses on testing methods and techniques to identify and mitigate infrastructure risks while providing application and network-based security and encryption utilizing industry-standard protocols.Cyber security analyst
MSCS Digital ForensicsThis concentration emphasizes demonstrating the required skill set of a computer forensic investigator. It teaches candidates interested in forensics the various aspects of digital forensics, such as investigating network intrusions and mobile forensics.Computer forensic investigator, digital forensic investigator, cybercrime analyst
MSCS Executive Leadership in Information AssuranceThis concentration focuses on teaching students the fundamental skills necessary to comprehend global leadership concepts, bringing together all the components required for a C-Level information security position, and teaching students how to manage IT security projects to increase the success rate of organizations and IT managers.Information security manager, project manager
MSCS Project Management FundamentalsThis concentration instructs students on the essential tools and techniques required to lead projects successfully. They will develop project plans based on real-world scenarios and learn to work within time, cost, and scope constraints.Project manager, information security manager, IT auditor

Some other specialization options include:

  • Governance, Risk, and Compliance
  • Global Strategy and Operations
  • General and Technology
  • Secure Cloud Computing
  • Information Technology Management

Why should I do a Ph.D. in
Cyber Security?

Cybersecurity is one of the most in-demand professions and areas of study in computer science and IT. Almost every organization gives information security top priority due to the widespread adoption of computing. Even though they demand a sizable time and financial commitment, students with a Ph.D. in cyber security can benefit from the degree and access the highest levels of management, academic, and research positions in cybersecurity. Graduates acquire new skills, establish crucial professional relationships, and become eligible for higher-paying, more prestigious jobs.

Through a Ph.D. in cybersecurity, students can gain new knowledge and advance their technical skills to keep up with the rapid pace of technological change, for which cybersecurity professionals must constantly acquire new skills. They will have the opportunity to network with classmates, instructors, and other cybersecurity experts and use these connections to seek job opportunities in management, academic research, and teaching after graduation.

Highly qualified and experienced cybersecurity professionals are paid well. For example, the median annual salary for information security analysts was $102,600 in 2021, arguably making it a significant return on one’s educational investment in a Ph.D. in cyber security. Additionally, the skills one would have gained that can help one easily advance and be better paid include the ability to:

  • analyze resources, information, and procedures to improve security and promote resilience;
  • assist in preventing the loss of important information resources in the present and the future;
  • understand cybersecurity’s advanced theory and real-world applications;
  • lower organizational cyber risk by evaluating threats and vulnerabilities both internally and externally;
  • demonstrate knowledge and skill in the core areas of the discipline, such as networking, data analysis, and a disciplinary specialization pertinent to cyber studies;
  • display research prowess and conduct research in line with the scholarly cyber security community;
  • create cybersecurity policy, governance, risk, and compliance framework;
  • write and submit scholarly papers to peer-reviewed conference proceedings and journals that will help others expand their understanding of cyber topics; and
  • create strategic thought leadership for issues with cybersecurity operations and architecture.

Free Courses for Ph.D. in Cyber
Security Students

The vast majority of free online courses available over the internet are non-credit and unaccredited. Nevertheless, they can be useful in exam preparation or providing additional input for assignments and research. Here are a few websites where students pursuing an online Ph.D. in cyber security can find free courses:

CourseDescriptionProvided by
Topics Related to Cyber SecurityMIT OpenCourseWare has over 400 graduate-level courses that relate to several topics within cyber security, such as System Safety, Database, Internet and Systems Integration Technologies, etc.MIT OpenCourseWare
Topics Related to Cyber SecurityUdemy, a go-to destination for many online learners, offers several graduate-level courses in cyber security that provide in-depth knowledge of the subject. While most courses come at a small fee, some are free of charge.Udemy
Topics Related to Cyber SecurityedX, the popular online learning platform, offers courses such as Cybersecurity and Privacy in the IoT, Cybersecurity Roles and Operating System Security, Information Security – Authentication and Access Control, and more from famous universities worldwide.edX

How to get into the Ph.D. in Cyber
Security Program?

Admission requirements for doctoral programs in cyber security typically include a master’s degree from a regionally accredited institution or an equivalent degree from an internationally recognized institution. On top of that, a GPA of 3.0 or higher (on a 4.0 scale) is usually required. Applicants to some schools may also need to identify a faculty member willing to act as an academic advisor or mentor for their studies. Other frequent admissions requirements for a Ph.D. in cyber security program include:

Online Application & Application Fee

Completing an online application and paying the prescribed application fee.

Academic Transcripts

An official copy of academic transcripts from each college/university attended.

Undergraduate/Graduate Degree + Grade Point Average

An undergraduate and/or graduate degree and Grade Point Average (GPA) of 3.2 or more.

Graduate Record Examination (GRE) or Graduate Management Admission Test (GMAT) Scores

An official copy of GRE scores no older than 5 years.

Graduate Résumé or Curriculum Vitae

The latest résumé or CV that provides personal information and work experience.

Personal Statement or Statement of purpose

A statement outlining how the program relates to the applicant’s career goals.

Letters of Recommendation

At least 3 letters of recommendation from those who can provide a thorough evaluation of the applicant’s abilities at the graduate level.

Proof of English proficiency

A document proving proficiency in English (for non-native English speakers).

Ph.D. in Cyber Security No
GRE Programs

The Graduate Record Examination (GRE) measures a student’s ability to finish graduate coursework on their own. While GRE scores have become optional in numerous areas across several Ph.D. programs, this trend has not yet reached cyber security Ph.D. degrees. As a result, it is difficult to find a school that offers a Ph.D. in cyber security without a GRE requirement. Nevertheless, in some situations, an institution may eliminate the GRE requirement upon request or when a candidate has adequate work experience and certifications and meet other specific criteria. Students must check with the admissions office of their chosen college for exact information.

How Long does it take to complete the Ph.D. in
Cyber Security Program?

On average, a Ph.D. in cyber security will take 3.5 to 7 years to complete, though some programs can be finished in as little as 3 years, and others can take as long as 8 years. Ph.D. students’ research and writing are typically extensive and laser-focused on their chosen field of study; thus, the time spent on it will influence the overall duration of the program. Therefore, it is essential for students to think carefully about their time commitment before enrolling in a cyber security Ph.D. program. The time commitment of a doctorate in cyber security looks like this:

  • Minimum time required for a full-time Ph.D. in cyber security: about 3.5 years.
  • Maximum time required for a Ph.D. in cyber security: up to 8 years.
  • Typical time frame to complete a Ph.D. in cyber security: about 3.5 to 7 years.

Accelerated Ph.D. in Cyber
Security Programs

In most cases, students who take advantage of accelerated learning opportunities will complete their schooling sooner. A Ph.D. in cyber security can be earned in as few as 3 years through a streamlined doctoral program. Still, it can take another year after finishing the required classes to do the dissertation. A master’s degree student may enter a doctoral program at some institutions. In these cases, the master’s thesis can be “upgraded” to the doctoral dissertation level. Prospective students should talk to faculty members about how to go quickly through their cyber security Ph.D. program.

Accreditations for Ph.D. in Cyber
Security Programs

The field of cyber security is one of the fastest-growing industries in the world. Employers prefer to put their money into employees who prove to be dependable, skilled, and qualified. Companies would hire candidates with legitimate degrees in cyber security rather than those with questionable credentials. Therefore, it is crucial to choose a reputable university with an online Ph.D. in cyber security program. Independent organizations recognized by the U.S. Department of Education (USDE) and the Council for Higher Education Accreditation (CHEA), which includes the following six regional accreditation agencies, can grant accreditation to colleges:

  • New England Association of Schools and Colleges (NEASC)
  • Middle States Commission on Higher Education (MSCHE)
  • Higher Learning Commission (HLC)
  • Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Commission on Colleges (SACSCOC)
  • Northwest Commission on Colleges and Universities (NWCCU)
  • Western Association of Schools and Colleges (WASC) Senior College and University Commission (WSCUC)

Some cyber security programs may also carry additional accreditation beyond that of the institution as a whole. Certification from the National Security Agency (NSA) or other similar organizations may be displayed on the websites of colleges offering PhD in cyber security programs that have met their standards and are part of the Centers of Academic Excellence (CAE) list. Read the Guide to College Accreditation to learn more about accreditation.

How to Pay for a Ph.D. in Cyber
Security Program?

The expense of earning a Ph.D. in computer security is high. The average cost of a Ph.D. in the United States is $98,800, as reported by Education Data. Some prospective online students may be unable to afford the high tuition and associated research costs, even if they do not have any other out-of-pocket expenses for school. The following external funding opportunities are available to students pursuing a Ph.D. in cyber security online and can help them cover some of the costs of their studies:


Scholarships are awarded to individuals who have demonstrated academic and personal excellence. Because they do not require repayment and are relatively easy to obtain, they are the students’ first choice.


Unlike a loan, funding provided through a grant does not need to be paid back. Grants are typically awarded to students who demonstrate a financial need, as opposed to scholarships which are more commonly awarded for academic achievement.


Predoctoral fellowships, also known as Ph.D. fellowships, are grants to doctoral students. Accepting a fellowship as a Ph.D. student frequently comes with strings attached, such as a required project or the use of funds. Several awards and fellowships are available to assist in retaining or recruiting the most promising students.

Work-Study Programs

College students who participate in work-study programs can earn money for their education while still enrolled in classes. A variety of work-study opportunities provide meaningful connections between classroom learning and real-world experience while bringing in some money.

Graduate Assistantships

Graduate assistantships are available to students who work with faculty in a teaching or research capacity. Volunteering students often receive a monetary stipend or a reduction in their tuition fees for their efforts.

Student Loans

Ph.D. students can apply for and receive a student loan to cover their education costs. Loans for higher education are available from a wide variety of sources, including private lenders and the government. Taking out a loan will increase educational expenditures due to the interest charged on borrowed funds. Understand how one can apply for loan forgiveness to avoid repaying student loans by reading about Donors for Student Loans and Grants for Student Loans.


The Free Application For Student Aid or FAFSA is an application for federal financial aid that all prospective and current college students must complete to check if they are eligible for aid and receive the best financial aid package possible. The FAFSA Student Aid guide explains more.

Read about what financial aid is and find out everything there is to know about college funding in the How to Pay for College guide.

Fully Funded Ph.D. in Cyber
Security Programs

It is not easy to find a university with a Ph.D. program in cyber security that offers full funding. Doctoral programs are some of the most specialized in the world, so it is imperative that universities provide excellent research facilities and access to state-of-the-art equipment. Despite this, many schools will cover the cost of tuition for exceptionally bright and hardworking pupils. In addition, some schools have “minimum tuition support,” where students pay only a specific percentage of the entire tuition. Additionally, some organizations provide scholarships to Ph.D. in cyber security students that can bring down the program’s overall cost. Examples of such scholarships are:

University/College Description Award/AmountApplication Deadline
Scholarship For Service (SFS)The Scholarship For Service (SFS) program offers scholarships to Ph.D. cybersecurity students for up to 3 years. Scholarship recipients must commit to working for the United States government in a cybersecurity-related capacity after graduation for the duration of the award.
(ISC)² Graduate Scholarships(ISC)² and its Center for Cyber Safety and Education encourage and support students pursuing a doctoral degree focusing on cybersecurity, information assurance, or a similar field.Between $1,000 and $5,000 x 20 awardsFebruary 2024

FAQs Related to the Ph.D. in Cyber
Security Program

Is there PhD in cyber security online?

Most of the coursework for a Ph.D. in cyber security is conducted offline, and because advanced computers and networks are required, a reasonable duration of residency is often required. On the other hand, to boost convenience and appeal to working professionals, certain educational institutions may allow students to enroll in online courses (if such a facility exists).

How much can I make with a Ph.D. in cyber security?

How long is a Ph.D. in cyber security?

What can I do with a Ph.D. in cyber security?

Should I get a Ph.D. in cyber security?

How do you get a Ph.D. in cyber security?

Can I do a Ph.D. in cyber security without a master’s?

Career Opportunities and Salaries after a Ph.D.
in Cyber Security

Organizations and cyber enemies are engaged in an intellectual and technological “arms race.” As harmful hackers, criminal organizations, and nation-states become more adept, cyber security specialists are in high demand for positions in government, industry, and the military around the world. The demand for cyber specialists continues to outstrip the availability of skilled applicants for mission-critical positions. A doctorate in cyber security will likely lead to senior roles and higher pay in various private and government sectors.

A cyber security professional with a doctorate is likely to work in senior management or as a research scientist. Their salary will vary widely depending on their field of expertise and employer. Below are some examples of employment in the area of cyber security, along with their median annual incomes and anticipated job growth, according to data from the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS). Keep in mind that the salaries given are more representative of what a cyber security graduate with a bachelor’s or master’s degree may expect to earn. Because of their excellent knowledge and experience, those who obtain a doctorate have greater earning potential.

OccupationJob DescriptionSkills RequiredMedian Annual SalaryJob Growth (up to 2030)
Top ExecutivesExecutives at the highest level establish strategies and procedures to ensure that an organization’s goals are realized. They manage and direct a firm’s financial and budgetary activities and coordinate and direct the work activities of businesses and organizations.Communication skills, problem-solving skills, leadership skills, decision-making skills, time-management skills$98,9808% (as fast as average)
Postsecondary TeachersTeachers at the postsecondary level instruct students in a vast array of academic disciplines beyond the high school level. In addition, they may do research, compose scholarly articles and books, arrange courses and assignments, and oversee graduate teaching or research assistants.Speaking skills, writing skills, interpersonal skills, critical-thinking skills, resourcefulness$79,64012% (faster than average)
Information Security AnalystsAnalysts of information security design and execute security precautions for an organization’s computer networks and systems. They develop security standards and conduct vulnerability assessments on computer and network systems.Creative skills, problem-solving skills, analytical skills, communication skills, detail-oriented$102,60033% (much faster than average)
Computer and Information Research ScientistsComputer and information scientists develop innovative applications for both current and emerging technologies. They investigate and create answers for complicated computational challenges in science, medicine, and business, among other professions.Logical thinking, problem-solving skills, math skills, analytical skills, communication skills, interpersonal skills, detail-oriented$131,49022% (much faster than average)
Computer and Information Systems ManagersComputer and information systems managers, also known as information technology (IT) managers or IT project managers, organize, coordinate, and direct computer-related operations inside a business. They assist in determining an organization’s information technology objectives and are responsible for implementing those objectives through computer systems.Organizational skills, communication skills, analytical skills, business skills, decision-making skills, leadership skills$159,01011% (faster than average)

Certifications and Licensing for Ph.D. in Cyber
Security Students

A cyber security certification is a valuable addition to anyone’s resume. These more advanced certifications demonstrate that the holder has reached an expert level in a particular subfield of cyber security. Even though a doctorate is supposed to be strong evidence of one’s knowledge and ability, having additional credentials can make one more marketable to potential employers. Many companies and groups offer different certifications, including general, vendor-specific, and vendor-neutral (third-party). Here are a few examples:

GIAC Certifications

GIAC Certifications creates and manages world-class professional cybersecurity certifications. Numerous certifications are available in intrusion, defense, cloud security, etc. Examples include:

GIAC Certifications provide the most rigorous assurance of cyber security knowledge and skill to industry, government, and military clients worldwide.

NICCS Certifications (Catalog)

Through its cyber security certifications, the National Initiative for Cybersecurity Careers and Studies (NICCS) provides the tools and resources needed to ensure that the nation’s workforce has the necessary cybersecurity training and education. NICCS has compiled a list of well-known industry certifications useful for anyone working in cybersecurity. Some from the list include:

In almost all instances, licensing is not required to work as a cybersecurity specialist, except in defense, in which case the concerned department’s training and credentialing lead to automatic licensure.

Additional Resources for Ph.D. in Cyber
Security Students

Developing and maintaining relationships with other IT and cyber security professionals is critical for career advancement. Membership in a professional organization can benefit graduates and working professionals by providing access to relevant journals and publications, keeping up to date on the latest developments in their field and cyber threats, and establishing professional connections that can lead to the discovery of innovative solutions. Here are some resources to consider for those who have already earned a Ph.D. in cyber security online:

International Association of Computer Science and Information Technology (IACSIT)

The International Association for Computer Science and Information Technology (IACSIT) uses many different methods to advance computer science and information technology. It is a registered international scientific organization made up of experts in computer science and information technology who work together to promote and do research on cutting-edge methods and technologies in their fields.

National Cybersecurity Society (NCSS)

The National Cybersecurity Society (NCSS) is a non-profit group that works to educate, raise awareness of, and advocate for the cybersecurity needs of small businesses. The NCSS helps small businesses figure out their cybersecurity risk, tells owners about threats, and tells them what services they need to stay safe online.

International Association of Privacy Professionals (IAPP)

The International Association of Privacy Professionals (IAPP) is a resource for professionals seeking career advancement by assisting their organizations with risk management and data protection. IAPP asserts to be the world’s largest and most comprehensive information privacy community.

Center for Cyber Safety and Education

Formerly known as the (ISC)² Foundation, the Center for Cyber Safety and Education is a charitable organization committed to making the internet safer for everyone. Through educational programs, scholarships, and research, the organization strives to ensure a positive and secure online experience for people all over the world.

Information Systems Security Association (ISSA)

The Information Systems Security Association, Inc. (ISSA) is a non-profit international association of practitioners and professionals in information security. It provides its members with publications, educational forums, and opportunities for peer interaction to enhance their knowledge, skills, and professional development.

Author Bio:

Brandon Mario D’Souza

Brandon is a registered social worker with Social Work England. He obtained his master’s in social work (personnel management & industrial relations) and used it in fields such as water treatment, construction, software, and education. Then he transitioned to the health and social care sector with an M.Sc. in health psychology. Brandon loves to write, cook, and play musical instruments (piano, guitar, melodica, ukulele, and kazoo) and enjoys the calmness and serenity of nature.


Master of Social Work, Master of Health Psychology

Areas of Expertise & Credentials

None to disclose in particular; the basics are covered in the short bio.


The average tuition (based on degree type for in-state students), average graduation rates, and rankings are based on data from various sources, including the Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS), and are variable over time. All rankings and statistics are subject to change. The rankings are solely the opinion of Find Best Degrees (FBD) and are based on our proprietary methodology. They do not represent the views of the institutions or organizations mentioned, nor do they represent any official government census or survey. Furthermore, any views or opinions expressed on this page are of FBD’s researchers and teams. Unless otherwise specified, they do not represent the thoughts and opinions of the individuals, institutions, or organizations mentioned. This page’s content is provided solely for informational purposes, with data drawn from various sources, including IPEDS. FBD and its employees make no guarantees regarding the accuracy or completeness of any information found on this page or by following any link. FBD will not be held liable for any errors or omissions in this material nor any losses, injuries, or damages resulting from the exposure or use of this information. Although the information on this page is/was correct at the time of publication, readers should exercise caution because some or all of the provided information may have changed over time, potentially resulting in inaccuracies. For more information, please read our Terms of Service. Trademarks and logos are the property of their registered owners.